# Correlation Between Mangrove and Aquaculture Production: Case Study in Sinjai District, Sulawesi, Indonesia

2. Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Author Correspondence author

International Journal of Aquaculture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 14 doi: 10.5376/ija.2013.03.0014

Received: 04 May, 2013 Accepted: 03 Jun., 2013 Published: 15 Jun., 2013

Haris, 2013, Correlation between Mangrove and Aquaculture Production: Case Study in Sinjai District, Sulawesi, International Journal of Aquaculture, Vol.3, No.14 73-78 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2013. 03.0014)

Mangrove ecosystem generally accepted as nursery ground of variety if ahrimp and fish fries. The study has three objectives, namely to analyze the correlation (1) between mangrove percent ratio and primary product aquaculture, (2) between mangrove percent ratio and secondary product aquaculture, and (3) between direct benefit value mangrove ecosystem and coastal fisheries production. The research was carried out in Samataring village and Tongke village in East Sinjaisub-district, Sinjai district. Trend of fisheries data both from capture and aquaculture were analyzed, then compared with purposive sampling interview. Correlation and regression analysis were used to generate equations. The results of this research are as follows: (1) the correlation between mangrove ratio percentage and increased primary aquaculture produce negatively correlates and results in an equation of y=0.091x+8.800 with R^{2}=0.99, (2) mangrove ratio percentage and increased secondary aquaculture produce are positively correlated and results in an equation of y=0.016x+0.239 with R^{2}=0.99, and (3) Mangrove ecosystem direct benefit value and increased coastal catch produce positively correlate and result in an equation of y=0.485x-0.347 with R^{2}=0.99.

If managed optimally and sustainably, a mangrove ecosystem is one of the coastal ecosystems that has avariety of benefits that can augment its surrounding community’s welfare. Mangrove ecosystems are veryrich innutrients; therefore, they have the potential to increase the production of aquaculture and capture fisheries (Dahuri et al., 1996).

*Silvofishery*management. This type of management is an approach that merges conservation efforts into resource utilization efforts.

*Silvofishery*ratio.

**1 Result and Discussion**

**1.1 Overview**

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1 }and for milk fish 670 kg·ha

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1}(Dinas Perkeunan dan Kehutanan Kabupaten Sinjai, 2011). The comparison between the size of mangroves and pond sin Sinjai district is 65.35% and 34.65%.

**1.2 Aquaculture Produce and Benefit Value**

*Silvofishery*pond is poly culture of shrimp, with milkfish as the primary produce. Seaweed is not cultivated by reason of limited sunlight. The surrounding ponds, however, cultivate shrimp, milkfish and seaweedas their primary cultivation. This poly culture approach is consecondary red to have ecological, economic, and social benefits.

*Silvofishery*ponds ecologically aims to increase nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium through decomposition processes. All nutrients can be utilized by various cultured biota, so the potential for deteriorating soil and water quality can be minimized. Poly culture of shrimp, milkfish and seaweed formsa mutually beneficial symbiosis.

*Silvofishery*pond is aimed at maintaining biodiversity; the higher the biodiversity of an ecosystem, the higher the ecological, economic and social functions. Further, poly culture systems may involve some seasonal workers at harvest time, as energy harvesters, transporters, andsellers. That means the more various commodity types in a particular pond, the more labors are needed to deliver them to end customers.

*Silvofishery*pond total produce maintenance cycle

^{-}

^{1 }reveals that secondary aquaculture produce helps primary aquaculture produce, in addition to direct benefit of mangrove ecosystem (Asbar, 2007).

**1.2.1 Primary Aquaculture**

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1}, and (2) milkfish by 670 kg·ha

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1}.

*Silvofishery*pond produce in Sinjai, when compared to

*Silvofishery*pond producein Tangerang, is relatively similar with shrimp weighted to 200 kg·ha

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1 }and milkfish of 700 kg·ha

^{-}

^{1}·yr

^{-}

^{1}(Soewardi, 2011). The primary aquaculture produce perpond ratio is presented in Table 1.

*Silvofishery*management negatively correlates with mangrove ratio percentage, the greater mangrove ratio than pond ratio on

*Silvofishery*pond management, the lesser primary aquaculture produce; in contrast, coastal fisheries produce of wild shrimp and wild fish as well as direct benefit from mangrove ecosystem increases. There is a negative correlation between the mangrove ratio and primary aquaculture produce both directly and indirectly. (1) directly, the greater mangrove ratio than ponds in

*Silvofishery*management, the narrower the area allotment for the primary cultivation, and (2) indirectly, the greater the mangrove ratio than ponds, mangrove litter produce is higher and potentially affects the quality of soil and water and prevents the primary aquaculture organism from being able to optimally adapt to the environment to minimize mortality and maximize growth rate (Beukeboom, 2012). The correlation between mangrove ratio percent age and primary aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*management is presented in Figure 1.

Results of correlation and regression analysis between the percent age of mangrove ratio and pond ratio and primary aquaculture produce generate the following equation y=-0.091x+8.800 which is interpreted that each 1% decrease in mangrove area will increase the of primary aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*ponds by Rp 91.000 th

^{-}

^{1 }with value of R

^{2=}0.99. This means that 99% increase inprimary produce may explainits association with the mangrove and ponds ratio percentage on

*Silvofishery*management, while the remaining 1% of aquaculture produce can be explained by other factors. This study results confirm a research conducted by (Naamin, 1990) who argued that the presence of mangroves in the area surrounding ponds increases ponds produce.

**1.2.2 Secondary Aquaculture**

*Silvofishery*ponds consisting of various types of wild shrimp and wildfish. Both commodity types are considered as secondary because they are regarded as produce, even if stocking of both types of organisms is not carried out. The secondary aquaculture produce analysis results reveal average scoresas follows: (1) wild shrimp of 59.40 kg·ha

^{-1}·yr

^{-1}, and (2) wild fish of 69.30 kg·ha

^{-1}·yr

^{-1}. The main aquaculture produce per

*Silvofishery*pond ratiois presented in Table 2.

*Silvofishery*management. Unlike primary aquaculture produce, The greater the mangrove ratio percentage than pond ratio in

*Silvofishery*management, the higher secondary aquaculture produce. One of the probable causesis because secondary aquaculture organisms are more adaptable to the environment influenced by mangrove. In addition, secondary aquaculture maintenance time is relatively shorter, allowing several harvests in one cycle. The correlation between mangrove ratio percentage and secondary aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*pond management is presented in Figure 2.

Results of regression analysis between secondary aquaculture produce with mangrove ratio percentage and ponds with secondary aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*pond management generates an equation of y=0.016x+0239, which is interpreted that every 1% increase in mangrove ecosystem area will increase the value of secondary aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*management as much as Rp.16 000 th

^{-}

^{1}with R

^{2 }value of 0.99. This meansa 99% increase in secondary aquaculture producein

*Silvofishery*ponds. The results of this study confirm a previous research by (Niartiningsih, 1996) who argued that the presence of mangrove ecosystems in coastal areas may increase the catch of shrimp and fish fries.

**1.2.3 Direct Benefit Value**

*Silvofishery*pond management as presented in Table 3.

Table 3 Average of coastal fihseries produce in the form of mangrove ecosystem direct benefits per Silvofishery pond ratio (Rp th^{-1}) |

Analysis results of direct benefit value of mangrove ecosystems in the form of coastal waters fishery produce reveal apositive correlation with mangrove ratio percentage and ponds in

*Silvofishery*management; the greater the mangrove ratio, the more coastal water fisheries results. Figure 3 below describes the correlation between mangrove ratio percent age and direct benefits of mangrove ecosystem in the form of increased coastal fisheries produce.

Figure 3 Correlation of mangrove ecosystem direct benefit value in the form of coastal waters catch results |

Results of regression analysis suggest that direct benefit value from mangrove ecosystems positively correlates with mangrove ratio percentage and pondson

*Silvofishery*management, resulting an equation of y = 0.485x-0.347 which is interpreted that every 1% increase in the size of mangrove ecosystem will increase direct benefit value as much as Rp. 485.000 th

^{-1 }with R

^{2}0.99. This means that 99.9% of increased aquaculture produce in

*Silvofishery*pond correlates with mangrove ratio percentage in

*Silvofishery*pond. This confirms by Alam (1997) on converting ecosystem into pond with average produce of Rp.6467.799 ha

^{-1}th

^{-1 }yet causes ecological loss as much as Rp.33122.013 ha

^{-1}th

^{-1}.

According (Zuna, 1998), increased mangrove area not only increases the direct benefit of the mangrove ecosystem, but it also increases the biodiversity of flora and fauna therein. One of the objectives of the

*Silvofishery*management isto realize a balanced ecosystem, so in terms of ecology and economy, mangrove ecosystem can function optimally and sustainably (Beukeboom et al., 1992).

**2 Conclusion**

^{2}=0.99, (2) secondary aquaculture produce positively correlates and generates an equation of y=0.016x+ 0.239 with R

^{2}=0.99, and (3) the direct benefit of mangrove ecosystem positively correlates and generates an equation of y=0.485x-0347 with R

^{2}=0.99.

**3 Research Method**

**3.1 Location and Time**

**3.2 Fisheries Production**

*Silvofishery*ratio, interviews with

*Silvofishery*pond managers were conducted. The primary and secondary aquaculture produce include; shrimp, milk fish, wilds hrimp, and wildfish. At the same time, to see the direct benefit value of mangrove ecosystems a literature study was undertaken. The latter covers reviews of different produces, for instance, shrimp, milk fish, seaweed, wild shrimp, wildfish, crabs, shellfish, shrimp and fish fry.

*Silvofishery*ratio, a conversion from kilograms or units into rupiahs was conducted to facilitate the analysis of benefit cost ratio. The results of benefit cost ratio are broken down into two, namely specific analysison primary aquaculture and secondary aquaculture, and gener alanalysis on primary aquaculture, secondary aquaculture and direct benefit value of mangrove ecosystem.

**3.3 Correlation Analysis and Regression Equation**

*Silvofishery*pond management, the following equations are used:

**3.3.1 Correlation Analysis**

*Silvofishery*pond ratio, the equation below is used (Kuswadi, 2004):

3.3.2 Regression Equation

3.3.2 Regression Equation

http://iirc.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/40567

Zuna M. Y., 1998, Analisis Ekologi- Ekonomi system tambak tumpangsari di RPH, Proponcol desa mayangsari kabupaten subang, tesis magister program pascasarjana institut pertanian bogor

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