Effect on White Gut and White Feces Disease in Semi Intensive Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp Culture System in South Indian State of Tamilnadu  

Durai V1 , B. Gunalan2 , P. Micheal Johnson2 , M. L. Maheswaran2 , M. Pravinkumar2
1. Shrimp Aquaculture Technician, Sirkali, India
2. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai – 608 502, Tamilnadu, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 14   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2015.05.0014
Received: 21 Jan., 2015    Accepted: 28 Feb., 2015    Published: 18 Mar., 2015
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Durai et al., 2015, Effect on white gut and white feces disease in semi intensive Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture system in south Indian state of Tamilnadu, International Journal of Marine Science, Vol.5, No.14 1-5 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2015.05.0014)


Litopenaeus vannamei is a new species to India; right now culture technology is not comparable with black tiger shrimp. Bearing all those in mind the present study was carefully carried out. In the present study an attempt has been made to culture the white leg shrimp, L. vannamei in two ponds each with 0.6 ha in Kodakaramulai, Sirkali taluk, Nagai District, Tamilnadu. The salinity of the two ponds was ranging between 22-30 ppt and DO values fluctuated between 4.0 mg/l and 5.0 mg/l in the morning and between 4.5 mg/l and 6.5 mg/l in the evening. Ammonia was recorded maximum 0.3ppm and minimum was 0.1ppm. During the culture after 50th DOC there was a poor growth observed in both ponds due to white gut and white fecal matter. Immediately feed probiotic (Bacillus sp) mix with the feed for three weeks and two meals per day. The problem was slowly rectified. The maximum Survival 85% in pond 2 and 82% survival was recorded in pond1. The present study confirm that, shrimp farming community need more awareness to use feed probiotic, proper water qualitymanagement and feed management is essential for the successful culture.

Semi intensive culture; White gut; White feces (fecal); Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp disease

Marine shrimp farming is the most important aquaculture in the world and is reported by FIGIS (2007) about 75% of farmed shrimp produced in Asia where China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. The boom period of shrimp culture in India started in 1990 and the bust came in 1995-96. The growth of the industry off late witnessed two major setbacks. The first important bottleneck is viral disease outbreak (Karuna et al., 1994), which withered the confidence of entrepreneurs and financial institutions. Another very important problem is pollution. The organic load in term of unutilized feed due to excessive feeding (due to over feeding), feacal matter released by shrimps and dead algae, settle at the bottom of the pond contribute pollution of the pond bottom (Yew- Hu, 1992).

The most important diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp, in terms of economic impact, in Asia, the Indo-Pacific and the Americas have infectious etiologies. Among the infectious diseases of cultured shrimp, certain virus-caused diseases stand out as the most significant. The pandemics due to the penaeid viruses WSSV (White spot) and TSV (Taura Syndrome), and to a lesser extent to IHHNV (Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus) and YHV (Yellow Head), have cost the penaeid shrimp industry billions of dollars in lost crops, jobs and export revenue. The social and economic impacts of the pandemics caused by these pathogens have been profound in countries in which shrimp farming constitutes a significant industry. In the present study white gut and white feces diseases was recorded and the curable solution was described scientifically in L.vannamei culture ponds.
1 Materials and Method
The farm (Durai aqua farm) is located on the northern bank of Kollidam estuary (Pazhaiyar) in Kodakaramulai (Lat. 11o20’45N and 79o48’E). The farm is situated about 10 km away from kollidam. The southern side of the farm is elevated to a height of 3.5 m from Kollidam estuary. The total area covered is 2.4 ha of which water spread area is about 1.2 ha. Totally four ponds is there, two pond culture pond and two pond reservoir, each pond size is 0.6 ha. The farm geographical picture is given in Figure 1 and 2. The pond preparation, biosecured method and water culture techniques followed as per Gunalan et al 2013. The L. vannamei SPF and R (PL14 pass the PCR test and stress test) seeds were purchased from Oceanic shrimp hatchery, Marakanam and were transported in oxygenated double-layered polythene bags with crushed ice packs between inner and outer covers of the bag and packed in a carton. The seeds were brought to the farm site and bags were kept in the pond water for some time to adjust the temperature. Then the pond water was added slowly into the seed bag to adjust the salinity and pH. Subsequently the seeds were released slowly in to the ponds. The stocking density per 25/m2 pond (150,000 PLs / pond).

Figure 1 Satellite map showing the water source and pond location

Figure 2 Satellite picture shows the close view Durai aqua farm

The water quality parameters were recorded from culture ponds regularly. The water level was measured by using a standard scale with cm marking. The water salinity was measured by using a Hand Refractometer (Erma-Japan). The pH of the pond water was measured by using electronic pH pen manufactured by Hanna Instrumental Company, Japan. The dissolved oxygen was estimated by an oxygen meter. Blanca feed pellets (CP Aquaculture India Pvt Ltd) were fed to the stocked post larvae for four times daily at 7am, 11am, 2pm and 5pm respectively. No water exchange was done for the entire culture period. But some water from the reservoir was added at regular intervals to compensate water loss due to evaporation or soil seepage. During harvest all the water from culture ponds drained to sedimentation pond and ultimately reached to reservoir pond. At any account the pond water was not pumped out side of the farm as a bio secure measures. Cast net was used to measure the growth rate of shrimps. The first sampling was taken after 40th days of culture and number of individuals and the average body weights were recorded in each sampling. Sampling was regularly performed every ten days until harvest.
2 Results
Water quality parameters for the culture ponds are summarized in Table 1. Pond water pH and DO readings were recorded in early mornings (AM) and late evenings (PM). For the two culture ponds an overall average fluctuation of pH reading was between 7.5 and 8.0 in the early morning, while fluctuation of pH value was between 7.9 and 8.4 in the evening. DO values fluctuated between 4.0 mg/l and 5.0 mg/l in the morning and between 4.5 mg/l and 6.5 mg/l in the evening (Table 1). In general, AM readings became lower as the cycle progressed and the standing crop was increased. Average AM and PM pond temperatures were 22 to 29 °C, respectively (Table 1). In general, the temperature trend through the production cycle started around 27.5 °C, dropped to 22 °C because of a cold front during the third and fourth week, and then increased to a range of 28-29 °C. During the culture period the maximum salinity was recorded, as 22 ppt and minimum salinity was recorded as 30ppt in all the culture ponds. Ammonia was recorded maximum 0.3 ppm and minimum was 1ppm. Weekly shrimp growth is presented in Table 2. After 123th days of pond culture, the mean average growth of the shrimp at harvest were 32.8g and 33g for ponds 1and 2 respectively.

Table 1 Average water quality parameters of the culture ponds

Table 2 Average mean body weight

During the culture after 50th Doc there was a poor growth observed in both ponds due to white gut and white fecal matter (Figure 3, 4 &5). Immediately feed probiotic (Bacillus sp) mix with the feed for three weeks and two meals per day. The problem was slowly rectified. During this three weeks period we loss five grams weight gain. Survivals were 82 and 85 for ponds 1 and 2 respectively; the average FCR was recorded 1.4 in both the ponds. The average production was 5450 and 5660 kg/ha for ponds 1 and 2 respectively.

Figure 3 White feces with shrimp

Figure 4 White feces in the check tray

Figure 5 White Feces floating in the corner

3 Discussion
The present study is the report on the white gut and white feces disease in L. vannamei culture in Kodakaramulai, Sirkali taluk, Nagai District, Tamilnadu, India. This study shows that white gut and white feces affect the growth of L. vannamei. The maintenance of good water quality is essential for optimum growth and survival of shrimp. Good water quality is characterized by adequate dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity. Excess feed, fecal matter and metabolites will exert tremendous influence on the water quality of the shrimp farm (Soundarapandian and Gunalan, 2008). In the present study the salinity was maintained 22-30 ppt in both the ponds. However, the white leg shrimp, L. vannamei, is widely cultured in Central and South America (Wen-Young Tseng, 1988) and tolerates the salinities of 2-45 ppt (Parker et al., 1974; Samocha et al., 1998). Karthikeyan (1994) and Gunalan et al. (2010) recommended a salinity range of 10-35 ppt was ideal for shrimp culture. In the present study pH value was ranging between 7.5-8.0 in the morning and 7.9-8.4 in the evening.
The pH of pond water is influenced by many factors, including pH of source water, acidity of bottom soil and shrimp culture inputs and biological activity. Wang et al., 2004 and Gunalan et al., 2011 recommended the favorable pH range of 7.6-8.6 for L. vannamei. The concentrations of DO in all ponds are ranged from 4.0- 5.0 mg/l in the morning and 4.5-6.5 mg/l in the evening during the culture period. The values of water quality parameters reveal that all these are in the acceptable range for survival and growth of L. vannamei (Van Wyk and dan John Scarpa, 1999). The growth of the shrimps depends on the quality of feed. In the present study CP feed was used for all the ponds and the amount was followed as per feed chat. In the present study the average FCR was 1.4 for both the ponds. Similar results were already recorded by Paul Raj (1999), Ramakrishna (2000), Soundarapandian and Gunalan (2008) and Gunalan et al. (2011). Even though the stocking densities was quiet high better FCR was achieved in both the ponds because of quality of the feed, feed management, water quality, pond bottom management and other effective farm management.
Weekly sampling is very important to know the shrimp health, growth and survival. In the present study first sampling was carried out in both the ponds at the 30th DOC of the culture. Sampling was carried out every ten days one. In the present study from 50th DOC to 70th DOC both the ponds shrimps observed with white gut and also white feces observed in the check tray as well as corner of the ponds. Due to this problem there was poor during the period. Nyan Taw (2010) reported white feces problem during the L. vannamei culture. Chalor Limsuwan (2010) and Gunalan et al. (2014) reported the white gut and white feces in L.vannamei culture system. Chalor Limsuwan (2010) says the disease was first detected in P. monodon cultivated in low salinity waters (3-5%), but it was later spread throughout Thai’s entire shrimp production area, where currently 99% production corresponds to L. vannamei.
In the present study the white gut and white feces disease rectified using Bacillus sp. continuously for three weeks. Similar method was suggested by Chalor Limsuwan (2010). Amornrat et al. (2013) recorded White feces syndrome problem during his study. At the time of harvest in pond 1 and 2 the shrimps harvested at the size of 33 gm. Similar growth was reported by Gunalan et al. (2011). The present study strongly recommending to the shrimp farming community to use feed probiotic, maintain the proper water quality and feed management for the sustainable and successful shrimp culture.
The authors are grateful to Prof. K. Kathiresan, Dean and Director, CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai for providing facilities to carry out this research work.
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