Research Article

Co-management: Valuating Social Communication of Sustainable Coastal Tourism, in Indonesia  

Hengky Sumisto Halim
Triguna, School of Economics, Director of SHINE Institute, Indonesia
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 46   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0046
Received: 12 Sep., 2016    Accepted: 10 Nov., 2016    Published: 15 Nov., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Halim H.S., 2016, Co-management: Valuating Social Communication of Sustainable Coastal Tourism, in Indonesia, International Journal of Marine Science, 6(46): 1-10 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0046)


The aim of this study is to respond to the Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy of Indonesia on a “Wonderful Indonesia Program. Based on Co-management program, this study is going to valuate social communication of sustainable coastal-tourism in Karawang regency, Indonesia by qualitative and quantitative research, and it’s tabulated by content analysis. The outcomes of this one-year study found that there are two domains would be strengthening: government and local community sides. Firstly, the government gets to strengthen training and interactive learning’s program as well as counseling about the ability of sustaining coastal-tourism and their benefit. Finally, the local government gets to be more care on conserving the environmental along the coastline as well as aligning their policy, especially on maintaining the highway. Both efforts would raise local community’s awareness.   

Social Communication; Training; Interactive Learning; Raising Awareness; Indonesia


The tourism industry in Indonesia has increased considerably that supported by the economic and political stability, being one tourist destination for both domestic and foreign tourists. Established on the rest of the National-Tourism Statistics, the development of tourists and the archipelago occurred meaningfully from 2014 to 2015 with an average-growth pace of 3-5% per annum (Ministry of tourism of the Republic of Indonesia, 2016).


The Ministry of Tourism ensures that the progress and acceleration of the tourism sector should be given in 2019 the Ministry is targeting Indonesia visited by 20 million international tourists or double digit number of tourists in 2015. In 2016, tourism generated foreign exchange resulted in $ 13.2 billion and the routine of local tourists as much as 260 million trips with the money spent amounted to $ 17.2 billion. While, tourism's contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), will increase to 5%, and the number of tasks created to 11.7 million workers (BKN, 2016).


The main issue that needs to gain a complete answer is professional limited human resources in tourism and how its development and environment conservation around this tourist-area can be implemented both in the sense oriented conservation effort's attraction and conservation of the coastal environment functions. In sum, many social problems we meet in tourists’ society and to its developing on the issue of acculturation and the environment (Taslim, 2016). 


Indonesia was visited by 7.65 million global tourists in 2011. It’s representing 9.24 per cent growth compared to 2010, and it generated $ 8.55 billion for its improved 12.51 percent cumulatively, between January and September 2013, the number of intercontinental tourists visiting Indonesia has reached the figure of 6,414,149 tourists, growing 8.8% compared to the same period last year 5,895,288 tourists. With this movement, foreign tourists this year's target of achieving 8.6 million international tourists will be met (Saputra, 2013). Nevertheless, the competitiveness of Indonesian tourism continues to ameliorate. Between 139 countries, Indonesia is the number of 70, up to four positions compared to the previous ranking (Fajar, 2014).


The aim of this is to respond to the Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy of Indonesia on developing her Wonderful Indonesia 2016 Program, by valuating social communication of sustainable coastal tourism in Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis' beach, Karawang, Indonesia.  


Literature Review

Sustainable tourism

In the context of responsible tourism management, to make mass tourism into sustainable tourism, it would support the economy and preserving the environment in a sustainability manner. However, in practice, we often find indicators such as the lack of understanding of the concept; lack of awareness, coordination, monitoring mechanisms; and a limited budget (Farmaki et al., 2014). 


Meanwhile, in an economic context, sustainable tourism development focuses more on economic growth, and less attention to environmental protection efforts among shareholders. They prefer the key to success is based on the administration structure of government agencies that may touch on successful implementation of policies and planning for sustainable-tourism development (Liu and Mwanza, 2014).


Coastal tourism

Coastal-tourism is a tourist's attraction that utilizes the beauty of the intersection line between earth and ocean along the coastline. Coastal areas landward include: the land parts both dry and submerged, and is still tempted by the tides, the ocean breeze, and the intrusion of salt water (Supriharyono, 2000). While the boundary marine resource management is four miles far that valuated from the shoreline seaward to a city (Law No. 32, 2004).


In the context of risk management, sustainability recommends that tourism-planning policies need to overcome the pressure of tourists, tourism-agencies, and 60% of coastal-communities that live along the coastline. A key success factor behind the development of coastal-tourism depends on the planning based on the concept of sustainability, which would be useful to prune back the level of ecological risk the beach resort.  


Sustainable coastal-tourism

In the context of risk management, sustainable coastal-tourism should be backed by coastal tourism-planning policies to cope with the insistence of the tourists, tourism-agencies, and 60% of local community residential that live on eroded areas near the coastline. Key to the successful growth of the tourism is depended on the tourism planning that supported a concept of sustainability, which would be useful to cut back the degree of ecological risk the beach resort.


However, sustainable coastal-tourism developed and managed by tourism-policy planning, and involving local communities all along the coast (Mavris, 2014) as they are developed to balance economic growth and reduce the negative environmental impact and preserve the environment as a result of the activities of the stakeholders, and structure administration (Liu and Mwanza, 2014).


Co-management and social communication

Co-management becomes a new paradigm in the management of natural resources and the environment because of the demands of decentralization. The idea of collaborative management is a partnership between the government, local communities and resource users, non-governmental organizations to negotiate and establish the framework, and responsible area (IUCN, 1994). It occurs in a situation where two or more communal actors negotiate to determine and ensure the distribution of rights and obligation is a fair of a region, area or natural resources.


One of these half-dozen fields of co-management is a social-communication that will be addressed in this study. It is very useful to build bridges of understanding in coastal-communities by exchanging messages with a way of communicating with the aim to create an understanding and enrich the knowledge necessary to use it to perform the management of coastal-resources in a sustainability manner. Social-communication beneficial to bridge the understanding of coastal-tourism in a sustainable manner that will benefit the communities by involving the exchange of messages to maintain coastal-environments based environments to create meaning and enrich the general knowledge in dealing with negative environmental impacts caused by the activity of the beach tourism. The attribute of social communication (Borrini-Feyerrabend et al., 2007) is advertising awareness, training, and interactive learning.   



Informing includes the fields of public relations, communications, and promotions. In universal, this communication emphasizes the social-communication strategies undertaken by non-governmental organizations and governments as well as companies and institutions, which normally reflects the overall organizational plan that includes the missionary work, vision, and purpose (Carlsson and Berkes, 2005). 


In many lessons, communications in the mass media are not effective for informing and influencing people's preferences (Petty et al., 2009). Although the regime continues to strive and to impart their information through the mechanism of allocation of communication through mass media to citizens, but it will simply afford a few opportunities in the residential area to get down out of their talks behind the government's campaign (Weiss and Tschirhart, 2007). 


In summation, a kind of communication strategy: national campaign focuses on increasing awareness in protecting and bearing on the surroundings in a sustainable manner has the objective to inform citizens about the plan for the form of interpersonal communication, which constituted the chief origin of information using television, radio, posters and pamphlets (UNICEF, 2005). 


Improving the information in a professional manner, and discernment of the phenomena of all forms of easily accessible data, is all important in disseminating information on the various findings. They can use it to improve the knowledge and information to the public and relevant agencies in decision making as well as local and national policies (The World Leisure Organization, 2008). 


Communication is a process of consultation during the planning, research-driven, design, and strategic interventions. Availability of information can motivate the attitudes and conduct of individuals or communities involved in altering their perception (Bandura, 2001; and Barwick et al., 2014).


Raising awareness

To manage human resources and the environment more effectively, they would be executed by utilizing cross-sector within social mobilization. Even more, it can heighten awareness of the public, stakeholders and relevant institutions in participating in sustainable development through participatory strategies (UNICEF, 2005).


Meanwhile, to increase social consciousness among the public towards a strengthening program for tourism and environmental protection very necessary to increase awareness of the program which is, likewise, useful for keeping their economy in the present and in the hereafter. In summation, a more extensive participation of all relevant sectors involved in the tourism industry is very influential in the successful participation of local communities in an attempt to promote consciousness among the younger generation. This can be done through training and educational programs with the concept of sustainable coastal tourism. This concept will increase national values, societal norms, culture, and the environment in order to demonstrate respect, caution and preservation of their natural surroundings. At the same time, this will increase awareness of a social community-based programs-coastal tourism (Dagron and Tufte, 2006).


In an effort to create awareness and promote sustainable-tourism in the conservation of the environment and regional culture, the necessary financial assistance to support the conservation program by program, mechanism, registration, and monitoring of traditional heritage home and also make recovery of their property (Aall, 2014).


To keep local revenue sources, and facets of achieving balanced growth in economic action, environmental preservation and cultural entrepreneur depend on awareness of coastal residential areas in advancing programs and sustainable tourism practices through partnerships and bilateral agreements (Aall, 2014; and Dagron and Tufte, 2006).



Training is a means of effective-communication between the public and the government that can be done through volunteer training to improve their skills to communicate sustainable development programs with community participation in supporting environmental and social policies of the government (UNICEF, 2005).


In accession, training is also of effective communications, and most often exercised in the form of how to deal with behavior problems' environmentally damaging tourism, which includes conservation, evaluation, and development plan of sustainability (Tiger et al., 2008). 


In terms of sustainable coastal tourism, training is useful for balancing the knowledge, competencies, skills transfer, learning methods and information-transfer of individuals in the group learning method that includes the exchange knowledge, counseling and individual workshops on managing all about sustaining coastal-tourism. Training is also would be a learning strategy that influenced the development of competence and how synthesis competence skills transfer into a new formation (Garavan and O′Cinneide, 1994; and Lean, 1998).


Interactive learning

Interactive-learning is a learning process that is determined by an interactive-learning environment of the data received, and the outcomes can be felt in the achiever of a person's skill and increase knowledge in understanding people's attitudes (Liawa and Huang, 2013).


The process with increased control can simulate the direct-learning model that requires customization on a community assessment and expectations of sustainable coastal-tourism in order to create a favorable environment in this learning process (Aggarwal and Bento, 2000). 


Withal, the learning is produced based on the knowledge of people in the process of interactive learning about environmental conservation of coastal tourism in the form of instruction, which underscores the importance of local community organizations in managing interest and reading them in the empowerment program that accommodates the participation in human evolution and ecological sustainability that contribute on their economies (Dagron and Tufte, 2006).    



The research was conducted from August 2015 – August 2016 in one year’s study in Karawang regency, West Java, Indonesia, descriptive, clear questions, and stratified. The 270 respondents are a local community, several travel agents, tourists, and related institutions. A data was collected by using stratified sampling and by using the triangulation technique: Open observation; Structure interview, and Interview. Moreover, in terms of social-communication, the data was tabulated by content analysis (Cohen, 1960) that transforms from qualitative to quantitative approach (Henderson, 1991): Firstly, tabulated the attribute of social-communication: informing, raising awareness, training, and interactive-learning about sustainable-coastal-tourism.


Secondly, this study searched the lowest attributes of it based on frequency of Kappa coefficients of social-communication and explores more deeply the key factors that influence their performance. The attributes of social-communication: Informing, provision of advice can be done either through communication, and promotion of a friendly coast-management in developing beach-tourism is led by both non-governmental organizations and government (The World Leisure Organization, 2008); Create Awareness, establishing awareness and promoting sustainable-tourism in the conservation of the environment and culture of the area needed a financial assistance needed to support conservation programs in coast areas (Aall 2014); Training, balancing the knowledge, competencies of skills transfer, learning methods in managing all about sustainability, information-transfer of distinctive in the group learning, exchange knowledge, and counseling and individual workshops (Garavan and O′Cinneide, 1994; and Lean, 1998); and Interactive learning is a learning process that is determined by the learning environment to increase their knowledge and understanding of coastal-management that affect people's attitudes (Liawa, & Huang, 2013).


Finally, analyzed and discussed the weaknesses of the parameters of a societal communication.  



Figure 1 Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis Beach, Karawang, Indonesia, 2016


Result and Discussion

Under conditions of sustainability, the performance part of co-management is a social-communication does not show the outcome is so strong as to inform and raise awareness of local communities on conserving the coast and keep the survival of coral reefs, sea-grass beds and ornamental fish (Table 1). Other indicators indicated that there were weak preparation and interactive learning about the coastal-tourism and marine tourism. The substances of this training are all matters related to beach-sustainable tourism that aim to minimize the negative impacts and increase efforts to coastal areas based on the natural environment (Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board, 2013), by harmonizing environmental policy of tourism development, the necessary social-communication. At present, the business is still not so effective, especially in terms of social communication interactions. Despite these efforts is quite strong and implemented through the promotion of sustainable tourism, but the coastal environment-tourism still gets negative environmental impacts both from the earth and from the sea side. Actually, the government can in contrast improve their social communication benefits by empowering the communities to implement conservation in the region which include; the introduction, dissemination and sustainability campaigns and equipped with regional training facilities. It can also be developed through the promotion of sustainable-tourism. Finally, social communication is beneficial to increase the awareness of stakeholders in managing coastal tourist destinations that involve stakeholders in strengthening the information about sustainability (Liu and Mwanza, 2014).  



Table 1 Social Communication - Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis beach


In terms of interactive learning, it would align community assessment (Anfuso et al., 2014) and outlook about the realistic targets, sustain and create a favorable natural-environment in this learning-operation that supported by finding out methods in managing all about sustaining coastal-tourism. 


Moreover, it can increase their awareness in all common processes of informing tourism-coast that is having both positive and negative impacts on the natural surroundings of coastal and cultural, through a regulatory tool used in environmental management of the coast by implementing rules and sanctions, deployment information through electronic media, monitoring and compiled code of conduct, dissemination of information, research, and teaching and grooming. Social-communication would be in the form of information, covering the field of public relations, and promotions. This communication is done by non-governmental organizations and the government and related representatives. 


Factually, despite regional government continues its efforts to convey their information through the mechanism of allocation of communication through the mass media to the communities, merely the communication strategies not so successfully to enhance awareness in protecting and giving birth on the sustainable - environment in a manner in the form of interpersonal communication on maintaining environmental protection efforts. Withal, the truth, it is only some of the information reflected an understanding by the public. Therefore, conceived of the phenomenon of all forms was easy accessible information becomes really important in dispersing the info.


It is happening, because of coastal development has not been fully implemented. Even more, it would be amended by the strengthening of public establishments, which include coastal-resource usage that would be more effective. Because of the anticipated benefits of growth are not evenly distributed and social unrest that disrupts the tone of people's lives along the coastline. This situation was validated by the tabulation of outcomes of training that has been given to the coastal communities (Table 2), which indicating the strength to the effort to balance the knowledge about sustainability that have been presented by the local government by using learning methods have not produced the effectiveness of information-transfer either to individuals or to community groups. Furthermore, the exchange of understanding of sustainability is still very feeble. It’s indicated that they lack of competencies of skill transfer, because most of them not so sure about the plan as well.



Table 2 Training, Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis beach


For that, they need more training intents through interactive learning, counseling and individual workshops by implementing friendly learning methods in developing sustainable coastal-tourism and institutional strengthening that make equitable management of coastal-resources. It has presented an incentive and guides them through training handicraft and small-scale commercial enterprise in the form of traditional food of coastal that can be marketed in the tourists visiting the seashore. At the same time, it can lead to their economies, and this will undermine the social gap between them. It attempts to strengthen small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to make preparing a training like trying to sell food and drink or traditional, cultivate fish that live in fresh water and brackish, being a tour-guide, rent boats as a means of transportation, coastal-tourism, or the staff of the hotel around Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis' beaches (Raka, 2012), rental of means of transport (automobiles, bikes, bicycles) can be created to sustain the tourism activity and enhancing economic growth of the local community. Furthermore, attempts to strengthen coastal used to be performed on a big scale by increasing economic development and regional communities by requiring banks and business to control and sustain SMEs in the building of an environmentally friendly hotel and reflect the local-civilization.


In the context of an institutional development of rural-tourism, the need for early planning appropriate in determining the proposed program or activity, especially in the aware group travel in order to raise the knowledge and skills within the community through the implementation of training programs, rural tourism development, such as training for a group of tourism awareness, training of culinary and governance home-stay, manufacture souvenirs, training guide / tour guide includes an instructor outbound skills (Regulation of Karawang Regency No 2, 2013). Human-resource development would be acquired through teaching and training, both for authorities and for employees of institutions that deal with waste and drain. In an attempt to promote the increased public role in flood prevention, also carried on training activities for floods and continuous dissemination of environmental conservation efforts in sustainable tourism.


Sustainable tourism development requires the execution of educational plans and training, equipping the knowledge society on improving job skills and regional economic growth, and professional vocational. Training is implemented, should include on the topic of sustainable-tourism, hospitality management and other things that are relevant such as the training capacity of local facilitators to encourage community-based tourism. The activity carried out by combining practice and theory that encourage participants to understand the spirit of sustainable tourism along with the principles, elements and business units that need to be fixed, as considerably as the participation of other parties in the strategy of strengthening the business. Later, this training and individual workshop, the participants are required to disseminate science-based coastal tourism environment acquired during the training within the object community. At the last phase of counseling sessions, participants are expected to successfully design a small trip package, which will then be offered to the wider travel agent on supporting environmental protection.


In terms of the needs of tourism, education and training must be done to make a transfer of knowledge, technology, and competition for the actualization of the principles of sustainable tourism. The success of sustainable-tourism is largely determined by levels of public education of local government due to improved access and quality of education to local communities. It was targeted and the very function as the principal. to develop a necessary manufacturing, provision, and training by binding them to the concept of sustainability and humane in the playing area of breeding, and individual counseling’s workshop with regional content and created to increase the effect of training of sustainable coastal tourism.


Preparation of localized facilitators is an initial training effort are required to build up a cadre of conservation of coastal environments resilient, able to bridge the tourism business and the preservation movement to tone up the public manifestation of sustainable-coastal tourism, because both possessed the same value. While, facilitators have enough capacity to create more local-cadres, then gradually the training effort can increase resources for coastal-communities to have an approach to the empowerment of coastal-tourism community-established with increasing attention to environmental protection efforts and nurturing a natural-environment (Brake and Addo, 2014).


To ensure continuity of information on preservation of the coastal environment, organizational culture necessary understanding of coastal-residential areas around the outcome of negotiations. It is equally important between coastal-communities and management training in business negotiations to present and maintain transparency and open the way to run. Since a collective bargaining is an activity that is done in solving the problem, social communication, which required reaching success by updating environmental policy-based sustainable development (Nara et al., 2014).


Negotiating closely related to the collective-bargaining process as a whole is like the top of an iceberg. A more significant use of collective bargaining is the administration of the policy or agreements in determining the relationship between them. Keep in mind that the organizational-climate and organizational learning is a substantial predictor of the success of self-training, and knowledge transfer, becomes the controlling understanding of sustainable coastal-tourism for several individual-level variables. While management training is the party that bears the ultimate responsibility to explain and implementing training on improving the role of the tourism service's waterside which will increase the number of traveler to visit the destinations that are environmentally friendly. This will have an impact on increasing the number of public revenue and GDP, and tourism management.


The performance of a social-economy in this area still requires to be brought up. The indicator is in contrast weak social-communication effectiveness is the lack of attention in managing and maintaining the integrity of highways that are part of the foundation of travel activities. Because the highway is an extremely important role in the accessibility for tourists to reach the tourist destinations-coast, and in a superior way accessibility, will better the perception of the tourists on their goals (Saputra, 2013).


In the case of highways, a number of tourists, who travel along the Tanjung Pakis beach, and they are complaining Karawang transport, the article of the road to travel to location is still a bunch of damage, accident-prone and difficult journey of the interference. It is unfortunate the way to the coast in contrast much damaged, and many tourists who feel this is an obstacle to the accessibility of coastal-tourism in this country. On the other hand, after the access to travel localized. The beach is quite adequate and neat and clean. In sum, the impressive sea views, coastal-expanse that is long enough and deserves to be enjoyed. Unfortunately, the road to the site is still a heavy batch of poor road making it difficult for tourists (Junaedi, 2014; and Administrator, 2012).


Thus, this study recommended the government of Karawang regency, should immediately restore the road to Tanjung Pakis, so tourists more comfortable and safe in driving and do not work as a deterrent to make a return visit in the future. An interrogation of the surroundings is also less promising for leisure travelers, along roads, there are no favored shade-trees that can create a beautiful atmosphere, shady, cool and easy. Event though, at that point, there are some shady-street exactly because the trees, roadside irregular, accordingly that the impression arid, hot and uncomfortable. Furthermore, it is time for local-governments to think of the construction of hotels in the District for this moment. Expect from the private sector. Local governments can also own a sectional guesthouse or hotel that managed by the government itself.


However, balancing the knowledge of sustainable coastal-tourism would be developed well by using friendly learning method that transferred the knowledge to individual in group learning and back-up by counseling, which exchanged the knowledge about maintaining sustainability efforts.  



Responding to the Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy of Indonesia on a “Wonderful Indonesia Program,” this study found that social communication efforts of the local government did not so intent and effective, especially on their training and interactive learning program. It indicated that so many local people did not understand about the goal of sustainable coastal-tourism that would increase economic growth, GDP, and their daily income of sustainable-tourism activity. Even they did not know how to minimize the environmental negative impact by conserving the environment along the coastline. In terms of training, the government gets to intents on enhancing their program through counseling and individual workshop more effective to exchange the knowledge about sustainability to transfer the information to everyone in the group learning that would raise local community awareness.


Moreover, the government lacks of caring and maintaining the highway that became a part of accessibility. It would help tourists to reach both destinations easily, and it would increase tourists’ visitation that strengthens regional economic growth and its sustainability. At the same time, it would increase local community income and a small business chance based on traditionally.



Referred to this study, by enhancing the concentration on training and interactive learning about sustainable coastal-tourism in Samudra Baru and Tanjung Pakis beach, it would help local community to know and understand about sustainability that created (small) business and contribute economic to them. Indirectly, it would increase awareness about conserving the environment along the coastline that became the place to deal their business.


At the same time, as long the local government consistently implementing sustainable-development at both destinations, they would get improvement of local government income that would help and contribute the budget on maintaining the environment along the coastline, include their accessibility, especially the highway that gives the comfort to tourists.  



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