Research Article

Climate Change, Ocean Pollution, and Acidification: The Application of Integrated Management Strategies within the Framework of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science  

Chujia Yuan
South China Sea Biological Research Center, Hainan Institute of Tropical Agricultural Resources, Sanya, 572025, China
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2024, Vol. 14, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2024.14.0011
Received: 23 Feb., 2024    Accepted: 01 Apr., 2024    Published: 21 Apr., 2024
© 2024 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Yuan C.J., 2024, Climate change, ocean pollution, and acidification: the application of integrated management strategies within the framework of the united nations decade of ocean science, International Journal of Marine Science, 14(2): 83-93 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2024.14.0011)


As globalization accelerates, issues of climate change, ocean pollution, and acidification have become increasingly prominent, posing significant threats to marine ecosystems and human society. The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021~2030) was initiated in response, aiming to strengthen scientific research and technological innovation to explore integrated management strategies to address these challenges. This study, framed within this context, delves into the impacts of climate change, ocean pollution, and acidification on ocean health and discusses comprehensive management strategies to mitigate these impacts, including but not limited to the advancement of scientific research, the application of technological innovations, and the development of international policies and management actions. Through case studies, this research aims to demonstrate the practices and effects of implementing these strategies globally, while analyzing the difficulties and challenges encountered in the process. Suggestions for future scientific research directions and the deepening of policies and cooperation are also proposed. This study underscores the importance of integrated management strategies in the global recovery of ocean health, intending to provide references and insights for future ocean science research and policy formulation.

United nations decade of ocean science; Climate change; Ocean pollution; Ocean acidification; Integrated management strategies

In the current context of global environmental change, as the largest life support system on earth, the health of the ocean is crucial to global ecological balance and the sustainable development of human society. However, due to the increasingly serious problems such as climate change, marine pollution, ocean acidification, etc., the marine environment is facing unprecedented challenges. These problems not only pose direct threats to the health and biodiversity of marine ecosystems, but also indirectly affect human economic activities and quality of life. Albright et al. (2016) conducted experiments on seawater chemical manipulation of natural coral reef communities and confirmed that ocean acidification has weakened the growth of coral reefs to a certain extent, but when seawater chemistry is restored close to pre-industrial conditions, the net community calcification rate of coral reefs will increase. Direct indication that ocean acidification may already be having an impact on coral reef growth. Thushari and Senevirathna (2020) pointed out in their study that plastic pollution is a serious man-made problem facing coastal and marine ecosystems around the world. Plastic pollutants are distributed in ecosystems in different forms and sizes. Plastic pollution, including microplastics, has caused widespread distribution and accumulation of water, sediments and organisms in marine and coastal habitats, providing new opportunities for invasive species. habitats, which poses a growing threat to biodiversity and trophic relationships.


In response to these problems, the United Nations has launched the “Decade of Ocean Science” (2021-2030), which aims to promote marine scientific research and technological innovation by strengthening international cooperation, exploring effective ocean management and protection strategies, and achieving the restoration of ocean health. and sustainable use of marine resources, making oceanography more effective in supporting sustainable development and stimulating marine science for future generations (Ryabinin et al., 2019). This plan emphasizes the central role of scientific research in addressing marine environmental issues and calls on scientists, policymakers, businesses and the public around the world to work together to take responsibility for the future of the ocean.


The proposal and implementation of comprehensive management strategies are one of the key ways to achieve the goals of the “Decade of Marine Science”. Faced with the conflicts of interest that often occur between economic activities and nature conservation, an integrated approach is needed that spans the various epistemological boundaries between science, policy and society, as well as those set by different management approaches (Rölfer et al., 2021). These strategies not only include the deepening of scientific research and the application of technological innovation, but also cover many aspects such as policy formulation, regulatory construction, public education, and international cooperation. By comprehensively applying these means, we aim to build a diversified marine management framework based on science, policy-oriented, and supported by public participation to effectively respond to the challenges brought about by changes in the marine environment.


Focusing on the framework of the “Decade of Ocean Science”, this study deeply explores the impact of climate change, ocean pollution and acidification on ocean health, as well as the necessity and application of comprehensive management strategies in the face of these problems. Through case analysis and strategy evaluation, it aims to provide a set of effective solutions to marine environmental problems and contribute to the restoration and sustainable development of global ocean health. This research not only has important academic value, but also has far-reaching significance for global ocean governance practices, and is expected to provide important reference and inspiration for future marine scientific research and policy formulation.


1 Impact of Climate Change on Oceans

The rise in ocean temperatures caused by global warming has had a significant impact on marine ecosystems, including the growth, reproduction, distribution and biodiversity of marine life. With the increase in global greenhouse gas emissions, climate change has had a profound impact on the ocean. These impacts are not only reflected in changes in marine ecosystems, but also directly or indirectly affect all aspects of human society.


1.1 Rising ocean temperatures

The rise in ocean temperatures caused by global warming has had a significant impact on marine ecosystems. Frölicher et al. (2018) used satellite observation data and a series of Earth system model simulations to demonstrate marine heat waves (MHWs) from 1981 to 2017 (Figure 1). In recent years, marine heat waves have become longer, more frequent, more widespread, and more intense. And this trend will accelerate under further global warming. The study predicts that the number of days with MHWs will increase by 16 and 23 times under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming scenarios, respectively. These changes can have significant impacts on marine ecosystems. Furthermore, biodiversity, community composition, and functional diversity were affected in natural communities after one month of exposure to regular, elevated constant and diurnal temperature regimes. The research results of Vafeiadou et al. (2018) showed that tropical nematode communities are more tolerant to constant temperature increases than fluctuating temperature regimes, while temperate communities are equally sensitive to both conditions. What's more serious is that the increase in ocean temperature also affects the solubility of oxygen in the ocean, leading to the expansion of low-oxygen areas, which poses a great challenge to the survival of deep-sea organisms.



Figure 1 Characteristics of MHW from 1981 to 2017 (Frölicher et al., 2018)

Note: (A, B and C) Duration (A), peak temperature anomaly (B) and cumulative intensity (C) of the 300 largest heat waves that occurred globally between September 1981 and December 2017; each bar Figure represents a spatiotemporal heat wave, which is defined as a spatiotemporally continuous region in which each grid cell exhibits daily temperature anomalies above the 99.5th percentile (Materials and Methods) Bars on the map corresponding to numbered heatwaves Mark with red


1.2 Sea level rise

Global warming causes polar ice caps to melt, which is one of the main causes of sea level rise. Sea level rise is one of the most devastating impacts of climate change, leading to the loss of coastal wetlands, increased coastal flooding, degradation of coastal ecosystems, and a general decline in quality of life. Sea level rise is related to processes such as glacier activity, ice cap melting, and thermal expansion of seawater, all of which are complexly linked to global temperature changes (Chang et al., 2015). The phenomenon of rising mean sea levels can be attributed to various anthropogenic activities (anthropogenic factors) ranging from deforestation to burning of fossil fuels and increasing population. The effects of rising sea levels have resulted in the loss of agricultural land, damage to transportation infrastructure, land erosion in coastal areas, and the death of some aquatic animals due to saltwater intrusion (Isiaka et al., 2022), posing a threat to the safety of human life and property.


1.3 Increase in extreme weather events

Climate change leads to an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, which has profound impacts on marine biodiversity and human activities. The study by Babcock et al. (2019) in "Frontiers in Marine Science" reviewed the impact of extreme climate events (ECEs) that occurred on nearly 45% of Australia's continental coastlines from 2011 to 2017 on major marine habitat-forming species (corals, kelp, seagrass and mangroves). The temperature anomaly map at the top of the image below shows sea surface temperature anomalies (increases relative to monthly mean temperatures) during each extreme climate event between 1993 and 2014. Each panel (AE) marks the affected habitat type and the type of extreme events causing the impact (such as marine heat waves, tropical cyclones, floods, etc.) (Figure 2). For humans, extreme weather not only causes economic losses, but may also trigger shortages of food and water resources, exacerbating social problems. In the long term, the increase in extreme weather events will also affect the carbon cycle and thermal cycle of the ocean, further affecting the global climate system.



Figure 2 Temporal representation of extreme events and habitat impacts (Babcock et al., 2019)


The impact of climate change on the ocean is multifaceted, and its indirect and direct impacts are not only related to the health of the marine ecosystem, but also to the sustainable development of human society. Therefore, in the face of this global challenge, it is our common responsibility and mission to adopt effective comprehensive management strategies, strengthen international cooperation, raise public awareness, and promote scientific and technological innovation.


2 Current Status and Impact of Marine Pollution

With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, marine pollution has become a major environmental challenge facing the world. Climate change, plastic pollution and chemical pollution are increasingly damaging the marine environment, not only threatening the survival of marine life, but also having a major impact on human health and economic activities.


2.1 Impact of plastic pollution on marine ecosystems

An alarming amount of plastic waste is produced around the world every year, and a significant portion of it ends up in the ocean. Beaumont et al. (2019) examined the global ecological, social and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution through a semi-systematic literature review of 1191 data points. All study themes showed evidence of moderate to high frequency of global impacts, severe impacts on species, turtles, birds and mammals, with moderate to high irreversibility, the study showed. In addition, the negative impact on zooplankton and invertebrates is even more significant (Figure 3). Plastic waste in the ocean not only destroys the natural beauty of the ocean, but more importantly, it has an extremely serious impact on the marine ecosystem. Microplastics, especially small particles no larger than 5 millimeters in diameter, have been found in every corner of the ocean, from shallow coastal waters to the deepest trenches. Marine life, including fish, turtles, seabirds and even plankton, are at risk of ingesting these microplastics. Microplastics may not only clog the digestive systems of these organisms, but may also carry harmful chemicals into the food chain, ultimately affecting human food safety.



Figure 3 Ecosystem impacts of marine plastics on biota (Beaumont et al., 2019)


2.2 Chemical pollution and its long-term effects

Chemical pollution originates from a variety of human activities, including industrial emissions, agricultural pesticide and fertilizer use, and chemical emissions in daily life. After these chemicals enter the ocean, they may have toxic effects on marine organisms, interfere with their physiological functions and reproductive capabilities, and even cause genetic mutations. In particular, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are difficult to degrade in the marine environment and can accumulate through the food chain, ultimately affecting top predators, including humans (Landrigan et al., 2020). In addition, eutrophication of water bodies caused by excessive nutrient input has become a problem faced by many sea areas around the world. This not only triggers harmful algal blooms, but may also form anoxic zones in the bottom water bodies and destroy marine biodiversity.


2.3 Countermeasures and challenges

Faced with the increasingly serious problem of marine pollution, the international community has taken a series of measures to reduce the discharge of pollutants and try to restore the health of the marine environment. In 2019, Beaumont et al. (2019) analyzed the global ecological, social and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution and proposed countermeasures and policy recommendations to reduce the impact of plastic pollution on marine ecosystems, emphasizing the reduction of plastic production and use, improvement waste management systems, and the importance of public education and awareness-raising. In 2020, Abalansa et al. (2020) analyzed the problem of marine plastic waste pollution, using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to assess the causes of pollution in the context of Descriptor 10 of the Marine Strategic Framework Directive and the Good Environmental State, effects and management measures, and suggests that an interdisciplinary approach is needed to address marine plastic pollution. These measures include but are not limited to: strengthening international cooperation and formulating a global agreement on marine pollution prevention and control; promoting plastic recycling and reuse to reduce the generation of plastic waste; developing and applying environmentally friendly materials to replace disposable plastic products. In addition, it is also crucial to promote scientific and technological innovation and seek new methods and technologies in pollution monitoring, pollutant treatment, and ecological restoration.


3 The Process and Impact of Ocean Acidification

Ocean acidification is a complex process driven by multiple factors, which has widespread impacts on marine ecosystems and human society. It also has potential negative impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health. Therefore, adaptation and mitigation strategies are important in addressing the challenge of ocean acidification.


3.1 The process of ocean acidification

CO2 in the atmosphere dissolves into seawater, causing the acidity of seawater to increase. With the increase in human activities since the Industrial Revolution, large amounts of carbon dioxide have been emitted into the atmosphere, and some of the carbon dioxide has been absorbed by the oceans. When carbon dioxide is dissolved in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which is then decomposed into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions, resulting in a decrease in the pH value of seawater, known as ocean acidification. Ocean acidification affects the quality and quantity of marine biological resources, thereby affecting human nutritional status, respiratory problems, mental health, and medical resource development (Falkenberg et al., 2020). The ocean has long been considered a natural “buffer” against increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but the occurrence of ocean acidification shows that the ocean's ability to regulate is being threatened.


3.2 Impact of acidification on coral reefs

Ocean acidification has a particularly severe impact on coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs are hotspots of marine biodiversity, providing habitat for many marine species. However, the decrease in carbonate ion concentration caused by ocean acidification affects the ability of corals to use carbonate ions and calcium ions to form a calcium carbonate skeleton, thereby affecting the growth and reproduction of corals. In addition, the dual pressures of rising seawater temperatures and acidification will accelerate the occurrence of coral bleaching, leading to a reduction in coral coverage and the degradation of coral reef ecosystems.


3.3 Impact of acidification on marine biodiversity

Ocean acidification affects a wide range of marine biodiversity. An ecosystem consisting of coastal habitat-forming species and the biological communities they support, including habitat complexity, species richness, and coverage. Ecosystem functions involve biodiversity, productivity and nutrient cycling (Figure 4). Based on observations of natural gradients at CO2 leak sites, biologically constructed habitats are particularly sensitive to ocean acidification. Calcifying organisms in the ocean, such as shellfish, certain plankton, and some seaweeds, have their calcification processes negatively affected by acidification, affecting these organisms. survival and reproduction (Hall-Spencer et al., 2019). Acidification changes the structure and function of ocean food webs and affects marine ecosystem services, such as the reduction of fishery resources and the decline of ocean carbon sink capacity. In addition, acidification may also affect the behavior and physiological functions of marine organisms, such as changes in predatory behavior and reduced reproductive capacity.



Figure 4 Ecosystem attributes, functions and services provided by coastal habitat-forming species and the biological communities they support


Ocean acidification is a global problem under climate change and poses a serious threat to the health and biodiversity of marine ecosystems. Faced with this challenge, effective global and regional responses are crucial. This includes reducing greenhouse gas emissions, protecting and restoring key ecosystems such as coral reefs, and strengthening scientific research and monitoring to better understand the impacts of ocean acidification and the response mechanisms. In the future, through international cooperation and the implementation of comprehensive management strategies, we are expected to slow down or even alleviate the negative effects of ocean acidification and provide effective strategies and solutions for the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of marine resources.


4 Exploration of Comprehensive Management Strategies

In the face of global marine environmental challenges, the exploration of comprehensive management strategies has become a key way to achieve healthy recovery and sustainable development of the ocean. This section delves into the development and implementation of comprehensive governance strategies, the advancement of scientific research, and the importance of policy and management action.


4.1 Development and implementation of comprehensive management strategies

In view of the impact of climate change on the ocean, mitigating climate change has become the primary issue that needs to be solved. Efforts to reduce emissions need to be strengthened globally, including improving energy efficiency, promoting the use of renewable energy, and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies. At the same time, the protection and restoration of marine ecosystems, such as blue carbon ecosystems such as mangroves and seagrass beds, to enhance their carbon sequestration capabilities is also an effective means of mitigating climate change (Kelly et al., 2019).


Marine pollution control requires reducing pollutant emissions from the source, including limiting the use of plastic products, improving wastewater treatment technology, and controlling the discharge of chemical pollutants from agricultural and industrial sources (Abalansa et al., 2020). In addition, it is also crucial to strengthen the recycling and clean-up of marine garbage and reduce the impact of existing garbage on the marine environment.


Responses to ocean acidification are closely linked to climate change mitigation and need to be controlled through global efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, scientists are also exploring methods to locally mitigate ocean acidification, such as seawater alkalization technology, as well as protecting and restoring marine ecosystems that can regulate acid-base balance.


Facing global marine environmental challenges, exploring comprehensive management strategies is a key way to achieve healthy ocean recovery and sustainable development. Integrated Ocean Management (IOM) provides a comprehensive approach framework to ensure the sustainability and resilience of marine ecosystems by connecting existing sectoral governance efforts. However, the implementation of integrated management faces multiple challenges, including path dependence, institutional inertia, etc., and requires an interdisciplinary approach and the participation of all stakeholders to overcome these challenges (Winther et al., 2020).


4.2 Promotion of scientific research

Scientific research is fundamental to understanding and responding to marine environmental challenges. Through technological innovation and data monitoring, such as through remote sensing satellites, scientists can monitor changes in ocean surface temperature, sea ice coverage, algal bloom distribution and other changes on a global scale, which is crucial to understanding the impact of climate change on the ocean (Bean et al., 2017). The development and application of AUVs offers a new way to explore and monitor hard-to-reach ocean depths. AUVs can carry a variety of sensors for water quality testing, seafloor topography mapping, and biological sampling. Ocean observation networks and big data analysis can more accurately monitor changes in the marine environment and provide scientific basis for formulating governance strategies. Methods and tools developed in recent years, including molecular methods, optical (remote sensing) methods, and on-site monitoring instruments, can effectively monitor and evaluate the health of the marine environment and provide support for sustainable ocean management and protection.


With the explosive growth of ocean observation data, big data analysis technology has become an indispensable tool for marine scientific research. Using big data sources and new technologies to collect, process, store, and analyze data, scientists are able to identify long-term trends and patterns in issues such as climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution (Addison et al., 2018). These analyzes help predict future changes and provide scientific basis for formulating response strategies.


These examples of technological innovation and data monitoring illustrate the central role of scientific research in advancing ocean protection and governance. With the continuous development and application of new technologies, we are expected to gain a deeper understanding of the marine environment and respond more effectively to the challenges facing the ocean. Through continued scientific research and international collaboration, we can develop more innovative solutions to protect marine ecosystems and ensure a sustainable future for global ocean health.


4.3 Policies and management actions

International cooperation plays a vital role in marine environmental governance. International treaties and agreements, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Paris Agreement, provide legal frameworks and policy guidance for marine environmental protection. Countries need to strengthen implementation efforts to ensure that these international agreements are effectively implemented (Grip, 2016). In addition, cross-border marine environmental monitoring and information sharing should be strengthened, and cooperation mechanisms should be established to jointly address global challenges such as marine pollution and acidification.


Through the exploration and implementation of these comprehensive management strategies, we can effectively deal with issues such as climate change, marine pollution, and ocean acidification, and promote the healthy recovery and sustainable development of the global marine environment. This requires not only national and international community efforts. Future research and practice need to focus more on how to find new solutions through scientific research and technological innovation, implementing these solutions through effective policies and management actions, and ultimately achieving sustainable use of marine resources and long-term health of marine ecosystems.


5 Case Studies Within the Ten-Year Framework of Marine Science

5.1 Implementation cases of the "Seamless Ocean and Climate Forecasting System" large science plan

A successful case is the "Ocean to Climate Seamless Forecasting system" (OSF) large science project led by the First Institute of Oceanography (Ocean Institute) of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The plan was led by Qiao Fangli, an academician of the International Eurasian Academy of Sciences, and was co-sponsored by 34 ocean and climate research institutions and 3 international organizations in 25 countries around the world. It was successfully approved and became the first in the field of physical oceanography under the United Nations framework. Big Science Project launched. Mu et al. (2020) describe the data assimilation component of a seamless sea ice prediction system based on the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Climate Model (AWI-CM). The system's ocean/ice component employs unstructured grid discretization and smoothly varying spatial resolution, enabling seamless sea ice predictions across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In the recent progress of offshore ocean forecast systems (COFS) discussed by Kourafalou et al. (2015), he emphasized the importance of the integration of observation and modeling components for monitoring and forecasting coastal seas. These integrated systems need to be connected to larger systems to enable seamless data sets, status forecasts and forecasts. The OSF plan aims to solve the "blind spots" in ocean and climate prediction, achieve a leap from the current seven-day forecast to several months of short-term climate prediction, and promote a substantial improvement in ocean and climate forecast capabilities.


5.2 UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) project implementation cases

the implementation and coordination of the Ocean Decade by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Over the past two decades, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) has played a key role in promoting the sustainable use and management of large marine ecosystems (LMEs) around the world. The Commission's LME projects include the Global Comparative Assessment of Large Marine Ecosystems under the Transboundary Waters Assessment Program and the LME: Learning Exchange and Resource Network project, which promote the understanding and protection of large marine ecosystems (Barbière and Heileman, 2016). Since its inception, the program has aimed to provide a platform for the world to collectively align research, investment and initiatives to face common challenges, including marine pollution and the protection and restoration of ecosystems and biodiversity. Hundreds of actions are being implemented around the world, involving multiple actors such as research institutions, governments, and United Nations entities (Ryabinin et al., 2021). These actions aim to achieve the 10 challenges set out by the Ocean Decade, such as understanding and defeating marine pollution, protecting and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity, etc.


5.3 Case summary

These cases demonstrate how the "Ocean Decade" has made significant progress in addressing major issues in global ocean science and conservation through international cooperation and technological innovation, demonstrating the importance of global joint efforts to address marine environmental challenges. Through the development of a seamless ocean and climate forecasting system and the implementation case of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, we have witnessed the close cooperation between cross-border scientific research institutions and international organizations. These cooperation not only promote the development of ocean and climate prediction capabilities It also deepens the understanding of marine ecosystems and provides new strategies for marine pollution control, ecosystem and biodiversity protection. They not only reflect the key role of scientific research in solving global ocean problems, but also highlight the importance of international cooperation in promoting sustainable development of the ocean.


6 Future Outlook and Suggestions

With the in-depth implementation of the "United Nations Decade of Ocean Science" (referred to as the "Ocean Decade") plan, we stand at the starting point of exploring a new frontier for sustainable development of the ocean. Facing the future, we are facing both new challenges and unprecedented opportunities.


6.1 Challenges and opportunities

Although certain achievements have been made in the fields of marine science and conservation, many challenges have also been encountered during implementation. For example, the establishment and management of marine protected areas often face obstacles from local economic interests, especially in areas dependent on fisheries and tourism (Sciberras et al., 2015). In addition, international cooperation projects may also face obstacles during the implementation process due to political, economic and cultural differences.


In response to these challenges, effective responses include strengthening the international legal framework to ensure that all countries can take responsibility for marine protection; increasing investment in marine scientific research to support policy formulation through scientific data; and promoting communication among stakeholders. and work collaboratively to balance local interests with the needs of global ocean conservation.


At the same time, with the advancement of technology and the deepening of international cooperation, we have also ushered in new research opportunities. For example, the use of artificial intelligence and big data analysis can more accurately simulate and predict changes in the marine environment, while the application of biotechnology such as gene editing provides new ideas for protecting and restoring threatened marine species.


To achieve sustainable development of the oceans, policy formulation and international cooperation must be deepened. Global policies and regulations are needed to deal with transboundary ocean issues, such as the development of a global network of marine protected areas, unified marine pollution control standards, and equitable principles for sharing marine resources. Strengthening international cooperation is critical to sharing research results, coordinating conservation actions and promoting rational use of resources. By establishing closer cooperation mechanisms, such as cross-border marine scientific research projects, international marine environmental protection initiatives, and global ocean governance platforms, global wisdom and resources can be pooled to jointly address challenges facing the marine environment.


6.2 Conclusion and suggestions

In the past few years, various activities and research under the framework of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science have contributed greatly to the restoration of global ocean health. Through global cooperation and joint efforts, marine scientific research not only improves our understanding of changes in the marine environment, but also provides a solid scientific basis for formulating effective marine management policies and practices.


The core of the comprehensive management strategy lies in its multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary approach, which can comprehensively address the multiple environmental problems facing the ocean, such as climate change, marine pollution, and ocean acidification. Through the promotion of scientific research, the application of technological innovation, and the implementation of policy and management actions, comprehensive management strategies can not only effectively alleviate existing environmental problems, but also provide the possibility to prevent potential threats in the future. In addition, the comprehensive governance strategy also emphasizes international cooperation and multi-party participation, and achieves synergistic effects of global ocean governance through the sharing of knowledge and resources, which is crucial to addressing global marine environmental issues.


As a global initiative, the Ocean Decade has set clear goals and visions for marine scientific research and conservation. By stimulating scientific research and innovation around the world, the Framework promotes a deeper understanding of marine ecosystems and supports the development of science-based ocean management policies and measures. At the same time, the "Ocean Decade" also promoted international cooperation, responded to the challenges of the marine environment through joint efforts, and demonstrated the consensus and determination of the international community in marine protection. The plan also particularly emphasizes the importance of public education and awareness-raising, and promotes the support and participation of the whole society in marine protection work by increasing the public's understanding of marine issues.


Based on this, we recommend strengthening basic scientific research and investing in basic research in marine science, especially in the fields of marine biodiversity, marine chemistry, and physical oceanography, to deepen our understanding of marine systems; promote technological innovation: encourage the development of new technologies and new tools, such as unmanned ocean observation systems, eco-friendly ocean pollution treatment technologies, and new methods of sustainable ocean resource utilization; deepen international cooperation and strengthen cooperation at the international level to jointly formulate and implement plans for ocean protection and governance Global strategy, including sharing data and research results, and coordinating transboundary marine conservation actions; promoting multi-stakeholder participation: encouraging governments, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and the public to participate in marine scientific research and conservation activities, especially increasing youth and marine communities participation.


Comprehensive governance strategies play an irreplaceable role in restoring global ocean health, and the Ocean Decade framework provides strong support for achieving this goal. Looking into the future, continued scientific research, technological innovation, international cooperation, and further deepening of policy and management actions will be the key to ensuring the health and sustainable development of the global ocean. With the in-depth implementation of the "Ocean Decade" plan, we have reason to believe that through joint global efforts, we can effectively respond to the challenges facing the marine environment, protect and restore precious marine resources, and leave a healthier and ecologically balanced environment for future generations. blue planet.



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International Journal of Marine Science
• Volume 14
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